According to quite a few literary sources, St Kümmernis, a legendary female saint particularly popular in the southwestern part of the German speaking lands, was popular throughout the middle ages and was also venerated in Slovenia (even in Ljubljana) and in Croatia (n. 95). This mistaken belief is apparently derived from Stele’s article of 1955 (n. 2), or its abbreviated version in Stele’s book of 1969 (n. 1). Due to the lack of knowledge of both earlier and recent literature on the development of the Kümmernis images and their connection with the Volto Santo (n. 11, 14, 22−24. 29, 32, 47, 95), over the last decades the researchers of Slovene medieval mural painting even incorrectly began to denominate the bearded figure on the cross as Liberata (n. 4, 5, 7). In addition, they failed to notice that in two of the three images from the first decades of the fifteenth century, a fiddler was depicted next to the figure, who at the time was still mostly connected with Volto Santo.
Volto Santo, Wilgefortis, Kümmernis, Liberata, ---? o poimenovanju in razširjenosti upodobitev bradate križane figure v slovenskem poznosrednjeveškem stenskem slikarstvu
Zbornik za umetnostno zgodovino (Nova vrsta)